8 white silk rectangles 32x40 cm.each, with tracks made by a muddy wheel, mounted, each hung by two pins, on a single styrofoam board 100x200 cm.
Sound Recording 00:14:50
The informations about sexual abuses following here below, are supposed to be printed and displayed on the wall next to the work.
To be shown hung at eye level on a white wall
Child Sexual Abuse ~ Disclosures
Among victims of sexual abuse, the inability to trust is pronounced, which also contributes to secrecy and non-disclosure.
Source: Courtois & Watts, 1982.
Children often fail to report because of the fear that disclosure will bring consequences even worse than being victimized again. The victim may fear consequences from the family, feel guilty for
consequences to the perpetrator, and may fear subsequent retaliatory actions from the perpetrator.
Sources: Berlinger & Barbieri, 1984; Groth, 1979; Swanson & Biaggio, 1985.
Victims may be embarrassed or reluctant to answer questions about the sexual activity.
Source: Berlinger & Barbieri, 1984.
Victims may also have a feeling that "something is wrong with me," and that the abuse is their fault.
Sources: Johnson, 1987; Tsai & Wagner, 1978.
In addition to "sexual guilt," there are several other types of guilt associated with the abuse, which include feeling different from peers, harboring vengeful and angry feelings toward both
parents, feeling responsible for the abuse, feeling guilty about reporting the abuse, and bringing disloyalty and disruption to the family . Any of these feelings of guilt could outweigh the
decision of the victim to report, the result of which is the secret may remain intact and undisclosed.
Source: Courtois & Watts, 1982; Tsai & Wagner, 1978.
Study of 630 cases of alleged sexual abuse of children from 1985 through 1989: Using a subset of 116 confirmed cases, findings indicated that 79 percent of the children of the study initially
denied abuse or were tentative in disclosing. Of those who did disclose, approximately three-quarters disclosed accidentally. Additionally, of those who did disclose, 22 percent eventually
recanted their statements.
Source: Sorensen & Snow, 1991.
Young victims may not recognize their victimization as sexual abuse.
Source: Gilbert, 1988.
There is the clinical assumption that children who feel compelled to keep sexual abuse a secret suffer greater psychic distress than victims who disclose the secret and receive assistance and
Source: Finkelhor & Browne, 1986.
Early identification of sexual abuse victims appears to be crucial to the reduction of suffering of abused youth and to the establishment of support systems for assistance in pursuing appropriate
psychological development and healthier adult functioning . As long as disclosure continues to be a problem for young victims, then fear, suffering, and psychological distress will, like the
secret, remain with the victim.
Sources: Bagley, 1992; Bagley, 1991; Finkelhor et al. 1990; Whitlock & Gillman, 1989.
Reported cases of child sexual abuse reached epidemic proportions, with a reported 322 percent increase from 1980 to 1990.
Source: Sorensen & Snow, 1991.
Bruises, burns, and broken bones are more easily identified as child abuse than is sexual assault.
Source: Farrell, 1988.
This crime must usually be proven without corroboration or physical evidence.
Source: Janssen, 1984.
Child Abuse & Child Sexual Abuse ~ Substantiated
Composition of substantiated child abuse in 2000:
879,000 children were victims of child maltreatment.
Neglect ~ 63%
Physical ~ 19%
Sexual ~ 10%
Psychological ~ 8%
Victimization rates declined as age increased.
Rate of victimization per 1,000 children of the same age group:
Birth to 3 years old = 15.7 victims per 1,000.
Ages 16 and 17 = 5.7 victims per 1,000.
Except for victims of sexual abuse, rates
were similar for male and female victimization:
11.2 and 12.8 per 1,000 children respectively.
Rate of sexual abuse by gender:
1.7 victims per 1,000 female children
0.4 victims per 1,000 male children.
An average of 5.5 children per 10,000 enrolled in day care are sexually abused, an average of 8.9 children out of every 10,000 are abused in the home
Source: Finkelhor & Williams, 1988.
Approximately 31% of women in prison state that they had been abused as children.
Source: United States Department of Justice, 1991.
Approximately 95% of teenage prostitutes have been sexually abused.
Source: CCPCA, 1992.
Long term effects of child abuse include fear, anxiety, depression, anger, hostility, inappropriate sexual behavior, poor self esteem, tendency toward substance abuse and difficulty with close
Source: Browne & Finkelhor, 1986.
Victims of Childhood Sexual Abuse
Are Likely to Experience Later Criminal Consequences
Sexual and Other Abuse
May Alter a Brain Region
In regard to sexual victimization, the NIS survey concluded:
Girls are sexually abused three times more often than boys;
Boys have greater risk of emotional neglect & serious injury than girls.
Definition of Sexual Abuse: Non-Contact
forced to watch sexual acts
forced to listen to sexual talk, including comments, tapes, and obscene phone calls
sexually explicit material such as videos, DVDs, magazines, photographs, etc.; can be in-person, on the computer via e-mails, and otherwise through the Internet
forced to look at sexual parts of the body--includes buttocks, anus, genital area (vulva, vagina, penis, scrotum), breasts, and mouth
FACT: An adult exposing genitals to a child accounted for 12% of substantiated abuse cases (Trocme & Wolfe, 2001, p.135).
sexually intrusive questions or comments; can be verbal, on the computer, or in notes
Definition of Sexual Abuse: Contact
being touched and fondled in sexual areas, including kissing
FACT: Touching and fondling of the genitals was the most common form of substantiated abuse cases--69% of the cases (Trocme & Wolfe, 2001, p.136).
forcing a child or youth to touch another person's sexual areas
forced oral sex--oral sex is when the mouth comes in contact with the penis, the vagina or the anus; many children believe that oral sex is "talking dirty"
forced intercourse--can be vaginally, anally or orally; penetration must occur; penetration can be with body parts and/or objects (the most common body parts used are the fingers, tongue and penis)
The definition of sexual abuse with children is when an older child, a youth or an adult uses a child or youth for his or her own sexual gratification. This includes incest. Incest with children is when the child is sexually violated by a parent, parent figure, older sibling, other relative, or other significant person in the child's family life.
FACT: Most alleged perpetrators of sexual abuse were either "other" relatives (44% of the cases) or non-relatives (29%). Notably, very few substantiated cases involved a stranger (2%) (Trocme & Wolfe, 2001, pp.20-211).
FACT: Of sexual assaults on children/youth by their family members reported to Canadian police in 2000, 39% of the perpetrators were parents, 32% were siblings, 28% were members of the extended family, and 1% were spouses (Canadian Centre for Justice Statistics, 2002).
FACT: Alleged perpetrators were equally likely to be a biological father or stepfather (Trocme & Wolfe, 2001, p.203).
FACT: In 7% of substantiated cases of child sexual abuse, the alleged perpetrators were baby-sitters (Trocme & Wolfe, 2001, p.214).